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Part 5: Medical Overview

11. Common health problems

12. General medical information

13. Medical reference material

This page has been accessed more than [lots of] times since May 29, 1996.

Common diseases in ferrets

Once again, I'm not a vet or even a ferret expert, but here's a list of several of the most common medical problems in ferrets.
Intestinal blockages
Caused by eating something indigestible, such as an eraser, a rubber band, some fabrics, or even a good-sized hairball (accumulated from grooming), which gets stuck. Symptoms may include (one or more of) lack of bowel movement, constipation, bloating, vomiting or heaving, drooling, and others. Blockages may occur at any point in the digestive tract, from the throat through the lower intestine, even in the stomach where the object may move around and produce only intermittent symptoms. Blockages are serious and occasionally fatal; the most important immediate concern is to keep your ferret hydrated, which you can do by giving him 5 cc of water every 4 hours from a baby feeding syringe. You can try giving your ferret large doses of hairball remedy every 30 minutes for an hour or two to see if the blockage passes, but if not, take him to a vet right away for an X-ray, barium study, and/or surgery to remove it. Laxatone or a similar hairball remedy/laxative can help prevent this.
Tumors or lesions of the adrenal glands
Symptoms vary, including hair loss spreading from the base of the tail forward, lethargy, loss of appetite, and loss of coordination in the hindquarters. In females, often the most prominent sign is an enlarged vulva as in heat. Often, however, a tumor will be present without showing any signs at all, so if your ferret is going in for any surgery, the vet should take a look at the adrenal glands as well (if time permits -- ferrets lose body heat very quickly in surgery). The left gland seems to be affected more often than the right. More information is available in the Ferret Medical FAQ on Adrenal Disease.
Islet cell tumors (insulinoma)
These are tumors of insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas. Their main effect is a drop in the blood sugar level, and they are also common enough in older ferrets, even without symptoms, that if your pet is having surgery for something else, a quick check is worthwhile. Symptoms include lethargy, loss of appetite, wobbly gait, and pawing at the mouth; in more severe cases attention lapses (staring into space) or seizures may also occur. If you're more than a minute from your vet and your ferret has a low enough blood sugar level to be having seizures, call the vet and ask if you should rub Karo (corn sugar) syrup or honey on your pet's gums to raise it just enough to bring him out of the seizure. More information is available in the Ferret Medical FAQ on Insulinoma .
Lymphoma or lymphosarcoma
This is a cancer of the lymphatic system. There are two main types, "classic" and juvenile. Classic lymphoma occurs in older ferrets and causes enlarged lymph nodes and irregularities in the blood cell count, but often the ferret doesn't show any outward signs until the disease has progressed pretty far, at which point the ferret suddenly gets very sick. Conclusive diagnosis is by aspiration or biopsy of a lymph node, and treatment is chemotherapy. Juvenile lymphoma is completely different. It affects ferrets under 14 months, doesn't generally cause enlarged lymph nodes, and hits very hard and fast. Also see the Ferret Medical FAQ on Lymphosarcoma.
Splenomegaly [enlarged spleen, usually a swelling in the upper abdomen]
In situations where a neoplasm is not present [this is a common symptom of lymphosarcoma], the pros and cons of splenectomy should be discussed with your veterinarian. If an animal simply has a large spleen, but shows no signs of illness or discomfort, it is safer for the animal to leave it in. However, if the animal shows signs of discomfort, such as lethargy and a poor appetite, or a decrease in activity, the spleen should probably be removed. These animals also need good nursing care care to get them back on their food. Often caused by H. mustelae infection (see below). With proper care - recovery rates are over 90%. Also see the Ferret Medical FAQ on Splenomegaly.
Helicobacter mustelae infection
A bacterial infection of the stomach lining, Helicobacter mustelae is extremely common in ferrets. Animals with long-standing infections (generally older animals), may develop gastric problems due to the bacteria's ability to decrease acid production in the stomach. Signs of a problem include repetitive vomiting, lack of appetite, and signs of gastric ulcers (see above). Helicobacter infection and gastric ulcers often go hand in hand - the relationship between infection and gastric ulcer formation has not been totally worked out, although there is currently a lot of research in this area. Also see the Ferret Medical FAQ on Gastric Ulcers / Helicobacter mustelae.
Cutaneous vaccine reactions
Subcutaneous vaccination with rabies or other vaccines may, over a period of weeks, cause a hard lump at the site of vaccination. The lump simply consists of a large area of inflammation and most commonly are seen around the neck. The lumps can be removed, and generally do not cause a major problem for your pet. Similar lesions may be seen in vaccinated dogs and cats.
Urinary tract infections and prostate trouble
Signs include frequent urination, straining to urinate, and possibly funny-looking or smelly urine. Un-spayed females in heat, and spayed females with swollen vulvas due to adrenal disease , are particularly prone to UTIs. Treatment generally consists of a course of antibiotic (usually Amoxicillin); if the ferret doesn't respond to that, the possibility of bladder stones should be considered.

In males, what looks like a UTI may be (or be aggravated by) an inflamed prostate, also generally caused by adrenal disease. In this case the prostate, which is normally tiny, can be palpated, and a greenish goo can often be expressed from it. Taking care of the adrenal problem should clear up the prostate trouble too.


by Dr. Susan Brown, DVM

  1. GI Foreign Bodies

  2. Aplastic Anemia

  3. Anal Gland Impaction

  4. Cataracts

  5. Cardiomyopathy

    There is a separate FAQ devoted to cardiomyopathy.

  6. Urolithiasis (Bladder Stones)

Parasitic health problems

by Dr. Susan Brown, DVM

  1. Ear Mites

  2. Fleas

Infectious diseases

by Dr. Susan Brown, DVM

  1. Influenza virus

  2. Canine Distemper

Neoplasia (Cancer)

by Dr. Susan Brown, DVM

  1. Lymphosarcoma

  2. Insulinoma

  3. Adrenal Adenoma or Adenocarcinoma

  4. Skin tumors

Do I need to worry about toxoplasmosis?

Toxoplasmosis is a disease which is sometimes spread through animal feces, especially cats'. It's nothing to worry about, unless you're pregnant, have a very young child, or have a weakened immune system -- it's very dangerous to a human fetus in the first stages of development, it may be dangerous to infants and toddlers, and it's a concern for those who are HIV+. Ask your doctor if you think you might be susceptible.

Dr. Bruce Williams, DVM, says:

Toxoplasmosis has been reported twice in ferrets. Ferrets will not shed the toxoplasma organism to the extent that cats do, but if they are exposed to cat feces, they may contract the disease and shed very low amounts of oocysts.

Here's the bottom line. Because of the devastating effects that Toxoplasma can have on a developing human fetus in the first trimester - you don't want to take ANY chance at all on exposing [a pregnant woman] to Toxo. So [someone in the household who isn't pregnant] inherits all litterbox duties for the next nine months. Actually, she probably stands a higher chance of getting Toxo from poorly cooked beef. The doctor says - if she's a carnivore - better get used to well-done steaks....

How can I get my ferret to take this medication?

If your ferret is just starting long-term medications and you're not looking forward to an hour-long struggle twice a day forever, take heart. Most of them resign themselves to the routine after a couple of weeks. If you only have to give your ferret medication for a week or two, at least there's an end in sight!


Also see Rick Beveridge's description, with pictures.

If you're really lucky, your ferret will like the taste of the medication. In that case, either hold the dropper in front of the ferret or empty it into a spoon and let him lick it. If you squeeze the medication into his mouth, be sure not to squirt it down his throat, since he may inhale some and get pneumonia. Putting the dropper behind his back teeth and aiming in from the side helps.

If he doesn't like the medication, you'll want to mix it with something that tastes better, such as Ferretone, Petromalt, Pedialyte, or apple juice. Check with your vet to find out what won't interfere with the medication or its absorption. Some can't be given with oils, others with sugary foods, others with dairy products, and so on. You might be able to just mix the medication and the bribe on a spoon and get your ferret to lick it that way.

If not, suck the medication into a small feeding syringe, the kind without a needle, draw in a few cc's of the bribe, and shake it to mix them. Put a big old towel on a table or the floor, put the ferret on it, and see if he'll lick the mixture willingly. Be warned, ferrets can spit several feet. Don't wear your nice clothes.

If you have to force the mixture in, hold the ferret's head and shoulders with one hand so he can't back away. Put the syringe tip in on the side of his mouth and slowly squirt the stuff in, being careful not to aim it down his throat (or he might inhale some) and making sure to give the ferret enough time to swallow. You may need to hold the ferret's head up and his mouth closed, and rub his throat so he swallows. Once the medication is gone, give the ferret another small treat and tell him what a good ferret he was.


Some people have good luck with crushing a pill or pill piece and mixing it with a liquid treat, after checking with a vet to see which ones are all right. Otherwise, try completely covering it with something gooey such as Petromalt or peanut butter, then holding it on the tip of one finger. Gently pry the ferret's mouth open with a finger on one side, and scrape the goo and treat onto the ferret's tongue. Get it pretty far back if you can, but don't gag him. Hold his mouth closed so he can't push the pill out with his tongue, and rub his throat to get him to swallow. If he manages to spit out the pill, just keep trying.

Where can I get medications at a discount?

A fairly new company called PetMed Express offers common veterinary medications at a discount. Flea treatments, prednisone, and so on are available. The require a faxed prescription or the phone number of your vet's office so they can call for the prescription information. Call 1-888-233-PETS for information.

Can ferrets have transfusions?

Yes. Ferrets have no apparent blood types, so if your ferret needs a transfusion any other ferret can be a donor -- the bigger, the better. Dr. Susan Brown writes, "Approximately 20 ml of whole blood can be removed by cardiac puncture from a healthy male ferret weighing 1 kg [2.2 lb] with no side effects; it can then be used immediately for transfusing. 12 cc may be removed from a female weighing .75 kg [1.6 lb]."

If your ferret is going in for extensive surgery, ask your vet whether it might be a good idea to also bring along a big, healthy ferret as a potential blood donor, just in case it's needed.

What anesthetic should my vet be using?

Isoflurane, an inhalant. Dr. Bruce Williams, DVM, says:
The only acceptable type of anesthetic agent for general anesthesia in the ferret is gas, and preferably a gas anesthetic called isoflurane. Most vets use it, but other types of gas anesthetics, such as halothane are still in use. Isoflurane currently is the safest, with the least chance of generating a life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia or causing liver disease, both of which may be seen (rarely) with halothane. Most ferrets, even with severe disease, will go down quickly with isoflurane, and come up within 5-10 minutes. No other premedications are necessary [unlike for the injectable ketamine].

I would not use a vet who used injectable anesthetic for surgery - chances are much higher for overdosing. The effects of injectable anesthetics are extremely unpredictable in the ferret, and older ferrets are at risk for arrhythmia and cardiovascular shock.

How do I care for my sick or recovering ferret?

The following information comes from Sukie Crandall, who generously sent an account of her experiences with Meltdown and Ruffle, two of her ferrets with heart disease.

At first, your sick or recovering ferret will be a big drain on your time, energy, and humor. It's amazing how stubborn a sick ferret can be. If you're unfortunate enough to have a chronically ill ferret, you may find that she becomes easier to deal with after a while, as you both get used to her new routine and limitations.

You may have an assortment of medications for your ferret, whose schedule and doses might change according to her health. It's very important to keep a complete and accurate chart. Note how and when medicines must be given, and whenever you give medicines write them down and note the time. Keep information on side effects, when to skip doses, how to deal with missed doses or accidently doubled doses, which medicines should not be given close together, which must be shielded form light, and all other related information. Do not keep medications in a room which gets too hot, too cold, or too humid. Never give a laxative close to when you give a medicine. Be aware of side-effects and interactions; for instance, some medicines increase the chance of sunburn.

Pill cutters work much better than scalpels or other things, and a tweezers will also be handy. Keep in mind how different medicines must be given, and find the best way for each to minimize the stress to you and your ferret. Some must be given in ways which minimize the exposure to water or saliva. They are most easily given with a narrow pill gun such as your vet will probably carry, or mixed with a fatty gel like Nutrical. Liquids are pretty straight forward, but some ferrets get good at bring those up or spitting them out. If your vet or the manufacturer's research pharmacists say they may be given with fats try putting some Linatone or Nutrical on the ferret's nose and while she is licking that off squirting in the dose at the posterior side of the mouth. (Do not use a laxative such as Petromalt for these.)

You may need to cut down the sides of a litter pan for easy access, and folded towels can be used to make gentle ramps. For recovering ferret who is ready for play but isn't quite up to speed yet, put extra ramps, pillows, and climbing boxes around the room she'll be playing in, to make it easier for her to get into and out of boxes and jump down from furniture. (Be careful not to let her be more active than is safe, and always supervise her in play.)

Weak ferrets can't play normally, but they still enjoy encountering new things. Ruffle loved being carried for walks, being given herbs to smell (especially mints and basil), having the sun on her belly for short periods, listening to music (especially songs with her name), hugs and kisses, and other peaceful entertainments.

If your ferret has a reduction in smell try moistening a cotton puff or swab with a bit of perfume and putting it on the lower back above the tail, and behind the ears. That will keep it from sensitive areas but let the ferret enjoy the comforting status of having a ferret-proper level of smell.

If at all possible cancel your trips away. If not possible have a familiar, friendly, knowledgeable pet sitter such as a vet tech. Have a schedule, with some minor variations for interest, so that your pet knows what to expect. When your ferret has to be at the vet's office bring along a favorite toy or blanket which smells like home.

My ferret won't eat. What should I do?

If your ferret gets sick, chances are your vet will tell you to feed him softened food for a time while he recovers. Even so, sometimes an upset or recovering ferret will simply refuse to eat on his own. If that happens, a good thing to try is Gerber's Second Meals chicken baby food. It's full of nutrients and water (though it's not a good full-time food) and most ferrets love it. Put a little on your finger and let your ferret lick it; if he won't try it, carefully smear a little on his nose. He should lick it off and eat the rest from your fingers eagerly. In general, ferrets like attention, and they love to be hand-fed. For a stubborn case, try letting another ferret "raid" the sick one's food bowl in front of him. Sometimes there's nothing like competition to get a ferret to eat.

You can add Nutri-Cal, Pedialyte, medications, and so forth to the baby food if your vet recommends them, and as your ferret's recovery progresses, you can mix in portions of his regular food, moistened somewhat, to gradually work him back to eating dry food on his own.

Sustacal and Ensure are sometimes recommended as short-term diets for very sick ferrets, possibly in a mixture such as "Duck Soup" but they aren't nutritionally complete and should never be used as the only long-term food for a non-terminal ferret. According to one report, Ensure has the preferred flavors, but is also more likely to cause diarrhea. The best solution seemed to be combinations of the two.

What's Duck Soup? Anyone have a recipe?

Duck Soup, also called Ferret Soup and similar things, is a high-calorie, high-protein concoction meant to be fed to old or sick ferrets in order to fatten them up and help them regain their health.

To really get the weight back on a sick ferret, some people have suggested giving him whipping cream. It doesn't have much nutrition, but it is full of calories and can help an underweight ferret gain some back.

The following comes from Ann Davis:

ACME Ferret Company --- The Original DUCK SOUP

For years, we have been trying to find a super formula to fatten up sick ferrets, oldsters and ferrets with ulcers. We have been looking for something high in calories and protein, with added vitamins. After trying just about everything on the market for pets, we had just about given up, and were making do with some things that were not quite perfect for the little guys, because everything made for cats that we could find had a condensed milk base.

[If your ferret is really sick, you may have to work your way through] all the steps, from full Sustacal to Duck Soup in caring for a sick ferret.

We have heard of many miraculous recoveries attributed to Duck Soup. It has helped old ferrets, ferrets with insulinoma, ferrets with hair loss, and ferrets who are just plain too sick to eat.


1 can Sustacal (8 oz., or about 230 ml; it comes in a larger size too)
1 can water (8 oz., or about 230 ml)
2 scoops puppy or kitten weaning formula -- OPTIONAL
4 oz. (110 g? or ml?) dry kitten or ferret food, soaked in enough water to cover and soften it completely

[Sustacal is meant for humans; look for it by baby formulas or in the pharmacy section of your supermarket. Debbie Riccio says you can also use Ensure, Discover 2.0, or Just Born (puppy/kitten milk replacer).]

Mix thoroughly. We always nuke it for them to the temperature of baby formula. We serve about 4 fluid ounces at a time twice a day for maintenance; if your little guys eat too much and you feel they are getting fat, you can increase the amount of water. We have tried increasing the amount of dry food, but if it gets too thick some of them won't eat it. This formula also freezes well -- the Sustacal must be used within 48 hours if left only in the fridge.

What are normal body temperature, blood test results, etc.?

Rectal temperature   100-103 F (37.8 - 39.4 C), 101.9 average
Heart rate 216-250/min (225 average)
Respiration 33-36/min
Urine pH 6.5-7.5; mild to moderate proteinura is common and normal Blood volume 60-80 ml/kg
The following information comes from "Normal Parameters and Laboratory Interpretation of Disease States in the Domestic Ferret," an article written by Dr. Tom Kawasaki around 1994. Your veterinarian might find this information helpful.
                            mean    acceptable range
sodium (mmol/L)             153     143-163
potassium (mmol/L)          4.47    3.2-5.77
chloride (mmol/L)           116     105-127
calcium (mg/dl)             8.8     7.5-10.1
inorganic phosphorus (mg/dl) 5.5     3.7-7.4
glucose (fasted) (mg/dl)    110     65-164
BUN (mg/dl)                 21      8-37
creatinine (mg/dl)          0.5     0.16-0.84
BUN/creatinine              42
total protein (g/dl)        5.8     4.4-7.3
albumin (g/dl)              3.3     2.5-4.1
globulin (g/dl)             2.2     1.8-2.9
total bilirubin (mg/dl)     0.2     0.1-0.5
cholesterol (mg/dl)         174     76-272
alkaline phosphatase (IU/L) 37      15-75
ALT (IU/L)                  95      13-176
AST (IU/L)                  61      23-99
CO2                         22      14-30
A/G (g/dl)                  1.3     1.0-2.3
LDH                         274     101-498
triglycerides               98      31-101
GGT                         4.8     1-13
uric acid                   2.2     1.4-3.3
PCV (%)                     45.4    38-54
hemoglobin (g/dl)                   13-18
RBC (X10^6/mm3)             9.0     7.0-11.0
platelets (X10^3)           400     350-600
reticulocytes (%)           N/A
WBC (x10^3/mm3)             5.22    2.8-8.0
neutrophils                 3017    2329-5700
                            (59%)   (39-85%)
lymphocytes                 1157    525-3500
                            (35%)   (11-55%)
monocytes                   119     52-177
                            (2.6%)  (0.76-4.4%)
eosinophils                 133     29-432
                            (2.8%)  (1-8%)
basophils                   0       0
MCV (um3)                   51      46-65
MCH (pg)                    17.7    15.5-19.0
MCHC                        33      29-36 *
Dr. Susan Brown also notes that the normal insulin level is 0-20, but that insulin may appear normal even in animals with insulinoma.

There are, of course, dozens of components in your ferret's blood which can help your vet determine what's wrong. Here are some of the ones people ask about most often, and normal ranges. If you want to know more about what your ferret's tests mean, don't hesitate to ask your vet.

The following information is extracted from an article in The FAIR [Ferret Adoption, Information & Rescue Society] Report, Vol. II, No. 2, by Mary Van Dahm, with a few additions.

Blood glucose
Glucose is a sugar, the main energy source for the body. Its level varies through the day, higher just after a meal, lower when the ferret is hungry, but the body keeps it fairly constant mainly by controlling the amount of insulin in the blood. A non-fasted blood glucose test might give values up to 207 mg/dl, depending on when the ferret last ate. Testing the blood glucose after withholding food from the ferret for 6 hours (fasting blood glucose) eliminates the variation and gives you a more definite number to judge it by. A low reading (hypoglycemia) may be a sign of insulinoma . A high reading (hyperglycemia) is rare, but might be a sign of diabetes. However, insulinoma can also cause a high glucose reading, and since diabetes is extremely rare in ferrets, you should double-check any diabetes diagnosis by looking for sugar in the urine as well.
Pack cell volume/hematocrit (PCV/HCT)
This is the percentage of red blood cells in the blood. Low readings indicate anemia; high readings are usually a sign of dehydration.
Red blood cells (RBC)
Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs. Low readings show anemia.
White blood cells (WBC)
Part of the immune system. Readings over about 7000 may mean the ferret is fighting off an infection, cold or flu. Readings over 10,000 may be early signs of lymphoma or another cancer. Unusually low readings indicate anemia and a bone marrow problem.
Another type of white blood cell. High readings can indicate a "smoldering" infection, possibly Helicobacter mustelae. Many, but not all, cases of lymphosarcoma also show elevated lymphocyte levels.
Another type of white blood cell. Often an indicator of intestinal disorders, infection, or cancer. Other parts of the blood profile must also be considered for a diagnosis.
Protein, Albumin and Globulin
Albumin is a kind of protein, and globulin is a general term for all proteins that aren't albumin, so protein - albumin = globulin. The numbers indicate the ferret's general health and nutrition, and albumin also helps show how well the liver and kidneys are working.
BUN and Creatinine
The job of the kidneys is to filter out impurities, so if they aren't working well, these levels will be high.
Alkaline phosphatese
This is an enzyme found in the liver and bone. When bones are growing or the liver is damaged, lots of this is released into the blood.
Total bilirubin
A by-product of the normal breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Helps diagnose liver disease and bile duct obstruction.
Sodium, Potassium and Chloride
Controlled by the kidneys, these are commonly called blood electrolytes. They are involved in water balance, acid/base balance, and the transmission of nerve impulses, especially to the heart.
Calcium and Phosphorus
These minerals are controlled by the parathyroid glands and the kidneys. The levels show possible problems with bones, blood clotting, and nerve, muscle, and cell activity.
  1. Wellness, Inc. How to Read Your Report, 1993
  2. Finkler, M. Practical Ferret Medicine and Surgery for the Private Practitioner, 1993
  3. Brown, S. Ferret Medicine and Surgery, 1992
  4. Fox, JG. Biology and Diseases of the Ferret, 1988 *

What tests might my vet want to run, and why?

Dr. Michael Dutton, DVM, writes:
There is no one test for a general check-up. There are not even tests that are specific for some certain diseases. The following is a list of some example tests for common ferret diseases, but in case of some multi-systemic diseases (such as heart disease), they may not show all the abnormalities.

Tests that are specific for one disease

Tests that help determine a particular organ function

(may not be specific to cause, prognosis, etc.) The problem with biopsies is that you need to biopsy the correct tissue. That may not be possible such as some type of spinal cord or brain lesion. Intestinal diseases are easy to biopsy by surgical methods but that entails anesthesia (which may be risky to an ill ferret) and major abdominal surgery. So... you have a number of difficulties from the medical side to run a test for general health. Even if you can target a specific area, there may not be a definitive test and the owner needs to agree to costs, risks, etc.

The advice dispensed by myself is not meant to supplant the advice of veterinarians who are in charge of the patient. If the patient is not currently under the care of a veterinarian, the client is recommended to take their ferret to one.

Who makes this product or medication?

(This list was provided by Dr. Susan Brown.)

Alkeran - Burroughs-Wellcome Co.

Cytoxan - Bristol Meyers

Fervac D vaccine - United Vaccines Madison, Wisc. 53713 (608) 277-3030

Fromm D vaccine - Solvay Animal Health, Inc. Mendota Heights, Minn. 55120

Keflex Pediatric Suspension 100 mg/cc - Dista Products Co. Division of Eli Lilly, Inc. Indianapolis, Ind.

Lasix - Taylor Pharmacal Co. Decatur, Illinois 62525

Lysodren - Bristol Meyers

Nutrical - EVSCO Pharmaceuticals Buena, N.J. 08310

PDS II - Ethicon, Inc. Somerville, N.J. 08876-0151

Proglycem - Baker Cummins 800-347-4774

What books can I get or recommend to my vet?

One excellent medical reference is

Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents - Clinical Medicine and Surgery, by Elizabeth Hillyer and Katherine Quesenberry (1997)

Another good reference work, a bit outdated but still worthwhile for both vets and others, is

Biology and Diseases of the Ferret, by James G. Fox. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia (1988). ISBN 0-8121-1139-7.

There is also a series out by the

          American Animal Hospital Association
          12575 West Bayaud Ave.    
          Lakewood, CO  80228
          tel. 800-252-2242  
for practitioners on exotic pets. There are five books in the series. Dr. Jeff Jenkins and Dr. Susan Brown produced the one on Rabbits and Ferrets (he did the rabbit part). Many people feel that it is practical and useful; it has drug dosages, treatments, husbandry, normal clinical pathology values, and diagnostic techniques that might be useful for your vet.

Are there any other useful references?

Dr. Bruce Williams, DVM, recommends these references on cancers:

Lawrence HJ et al. Unilateral adrenalectomy as a treatment for adrenocortical tumors in ferrets: Five cases (1990-1992). JAVMA 203(2): pp 267-270, 15 July 1993.

Marini, RP et al. Functional islet cell tumor in six ferrets. JAVMA 202(3):430-434, 1 February 1993.

Rosenthal KL et al. Hyperadrenocorticism associated with adrenocortical tumor or nodular hyperplasia of the adrenal gland in ferrets: 50 cases (1987-1991). JAVMA 203(2):pp. 271-275, 15 July 1993.

Dr. Susan Brown recommends these, on a variety of subjects:

Blancou J, Aubert MFA, Artois M. Experimental rabies in the ferret (Mustela [putorius furo] Susceptibility - Symptoms - Excretion of the virus. Rev Med Vet 1982; 133(8-9): 553 557. (Translation by NIH).

Daoust PY, Hunter DB. Spontaneous aleutian disease in ferrets. Can Vet J 1978; 19: 133-135.

Forester, U., The adaptability of two rabies virus strains isolated in central Europe to one domesticated and two wild-living species. A contribution to the Epidemiology of rabies. Part 4: Transmission studies on ferrets with a rodent isolate. Zbl Vet Med B 1979; 26: 26-38. (Translation by NIH).

Fox JG, Murphy JC, Ackerman MS, Prostak KS, Gallagher CA, Rambow VJ. Proliferative colitis in ferrets. 1982; 43: 858-864.

Garibaldi ME, Goad P, Fox JG, Sylvina TJ, Murray R. Serum cortisol radioimmunoassay values in the normal ferret and response to ACTH stimulation and dexamethasone suppression tests. Lab An Sci 1988; 38: 452- 454.

Hoover JP, Baldwin CA, Rupprecht CE. Serologic response of domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) to canine distemper and rabies virus vaccines. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989; 194: 234-238.

Johnson-Delaney C, Nelson W. A Rapid procedure for filling fractured canine teeth of ferrets. J of Small Exotic Animal Medicine 1992; 3: 100-102.

Kawasaki, T. Retinal Atrophy in the ferret. J of Small Exotic Animal Medicine 1992; 3: 137.

Kociba GJ, Caputo CA. Aplastic anemia associated with estrus in pet ferrets. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1981; 178: 1293-1294.

Kreuger KL, Murphy J C Fox J G. Treatment of proliferative colitis in ferrets. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989; 194: 1435-1436.

Liberson AJ, Newcomer CE, Ackerman JI, Murphy JC, Fox JG. Mastitis caused by hemolytic Escherichia coli in the ferret. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1983; 183: 1179-1181.

Luttgen PJ, Storts RW, Rogers KS, Morton LD. Insulinoma in a ferret. J Am VetMed Assoc 1986; 189: 920-921.

Mainka CH, Heber L, Schneider W. Studies on rabies of ferrets after a singleantibodies vaccination, J Vet Med B 1988; 35: 24-28.

Manning D, Bell J. Lack of detectable blood groups in domestic ferrets: Implications for transfusion. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990; 197: 84-86.

Nguyen HT, Moreland AF, Shields RP. Urolithasis in ferrets (Mustela putorius). Lab An Sci 1979; 29: 243-245.

Rupprecht CE, Gilbert J, Pitts R, Marshall KR, Koprowski H. Evaluation of an inactivated rabies vaccine in domestic ferrets. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990; 196: 1614-1616.

Stauber E, Robinette J, Basaraba R, Riggs M, Bishop C. Mast cell tumors in three ferrets. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990; 196: 766-767.

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Last modified: 02 Mar 1998.